Machine learning is a subfield of artificial intelligence (AI). The goal of machine learning generally is to understand the structure of data and fit that data into models that can be understood and utilized by people.
Although machine learning is a field within computer science, it differs from traditional computational approaches. In traditional computing, algorithms are sets of explicitly programmed instructions used by computers to calculate or problem solve.
Machine learning algorithms instead allow for computers to train on data inputs and use statistical analysis in order to output values that fall within a specific range. Because of this, machine learning facilitates computers in building models from sample data in order to automate decision-making processes based on data inputs
Machine learning is a continuously developing field. Because of this, there are some considerations to keep in mind as you work with machine learning methodologies, or analyze the impact of machine learning processes.
Machine Learning Methods
In machine learning, tasks are generally classified into broad categories. These categories are based on how learning is received or how feedback on the learning is given to the system developed.
Two of the most widely adopted machine learning methods are supervised learning which trains algorithms based on example input and output data that is labeled by humans, and unsupervised learning which provides the algorithm with no labeled data in order to allow it to find structure within its input data. Let’s explore these methods in more detail.
Although data and computational analysis may make us think that we are receiving objective information, this is not the case; being based on data does not mean that machine learning outputs are neutral. Human bias plays a role in how data is collected, organized, and ultimately in the algorithms that determine how machine learning will interact with that data.
If, for example, people are providing images for “fish” as data to train an algorithm, and these people overwhelmingly select images of goldfish, a computer may not classify a shark as a fish. This would create a bias against sharks as fish, and sharks would not be counted as fish.